How Does A Vacuum Cleaner Work? (Complete Working Model Explained)

How Does A Vacuum Cleaner Work?

A vacuum cleaner is something we have all used and it comes with many great features that we all take for granted. While its simple to use and we all know what the end goal is, many people don’t really understand all the fundamentals of a vacuum cleaner. Have you ever stopped to wonder exactly what the mechanics are behind the vacuum cleaner?

In this article, we break down the vacuum cleaner into bite-sized chunks to make it easier for everyone to understand how it works. This will ensure you have a better understanding of the fundamentals and if you have any issues, you might be able to fix them yourself. Let’s have a look at some of these basic fundamentals:

Essential Components Of The Vacuum Cleaner:

The vacuum cleaner itself is broken up into a few essential components and this is what makes it functional. These components work in conjunction with one another and they ensure that you can actually get rid of dirt and debris. However, you might not know this without diving a little deeper and looking for them.

  • Intake Port: This is the part of the vacuum cleaner that is used for sucking up all the dirt and debris. It also comes with numerous attachments or accessories.
  • Exhaust Port: The exhaust port is where your clean air will come out after the vacuum cleaner has sucked it up.
  • Electric Motor: Considered the power of the vacuum cleaner, this part will be what powers the vacuum cleaner.
  • Fan: The fan blows all the dirt up into the vacuum cleaner and it is then placed into the bag. It also blows the excess air out of the vacuum.
  • The Bag: While many modern vacuum cleaners are also designed without a porous bag, some of the older ones still have an airtight bag for capturing the dirt and debris.
  • Housing Area: The housing area contains all the wiring and some of the other technical components that all contribute to the vacuum cleaner working effectively.

All of these components are vitally important to the functionality of your vacuum cleaner whether corded or cordless. If one of them is missing or faulty, you might have a few issues. It is important to do regular maintenance and to service the unit. This will ensure that everything is in working order and functions correctly.

How Do You Use A Vacuum Cleaner And What Happens Inside:

The instruction manual should tell you exactly how the unit works, but it does not discuss what each of the components is busy doing when you are using it. With the help of experts, we have analyzed what the vacuum cleaner components are busy doing when it is used. Let’s have a detailed look at all of these functions:

  • Once You Plug It In:

Once the vacuum cleaner is plugged in, the power cord will immediately start sending power to the motor. This will give you the ability to turn it on and activate the motor. The motor will start sending out signals to the other parts of the vacuum cleaner depending on what you are doing.

  • Turning It On:

Once the vacuum cleaner has been switched on, the fan will start spinning and this when all the magic starts happening. The fan is the main reason for the suction and it should start pulling in everything that comes within a certain radius. Instead of washing or picking up the debris or dirt, the suction should pull it up into the bag.

  • When You Are Using It:

As you are using the unit and the debris is sucked up, the unit will start filling up the bag. If you are using a bagless unit, it will start mixing in the dirt with the water inside. Both of these methods will trap the dirt and keep it from escaping. Your airtight bag is also perfect for allergens and will keep it trapped on the inside until you clean it.

  • The Air:

The air particle trapped inside the fan will start moving and since it is directed to the exhaust port, the air pressure will start to change. With new air entering the unit, your vacuum starts sucking up whatever is in the way. If you have a good HEPA filtration system installed, the air will also be filtered and you have clean air coming out of the exhaust port.

  • Once You Are Done:

Once you are done, all of the components are turned off and the fan will stop moving. This allows the air pressure to neutralize and the unit will go back to a state of potential energy. You now have to clean out the bag or the area where all the dirt is stored. Once it has been cleaned, you can simply replace all the components and the vacuum cleaner will be ready for another round.

Keeping Your Vacuum In The Best Condition:

As we have mentioned, the parts in your vacuum cleaner might become old and this means they won’t function as properly as you would expect. Doing a regular check of all the components will ensure that everything is working. We recommend consulting the manual as each brand does have a different idea of servicing the vacuum


Now you have all the fact and you can easily take apart your vacuum cleaner or even enlighten someone with your knowledge. The vacuum cleaner is one of the most revolutionary products of the modern era and it has made cleaning that much easier for the average folk.

We would like to thank you for reading this article and encourage you to share some of your thoughts. Let us know in the comment section if you have ever taken apart your vacuum cleaner and how the parts and components might differ from the explanation we have given.

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